02 September 2004


Beberapa waktu lalu, saya dan beberapa teman sangat beruntung sekali mendapat pencerahan mengenai kopi dari Mbak Syenny, salah satu pemilik dari Bakoel Koffie. (Sebetulnya wanita yang satu ini harusnya dipanggil Ibu. Emang udah emak-emak sih. Tapi karena beliau ini gaya dan gaul abis, maka saya lebih enakan manggil dia Mbak. Duh, penting gak seh?)

Di bawah ini saya copy-in dan jiplak-in makalah “pencerahan” beliau tentang kopi. Lumayan khan, itung-itung nambah lagi pengetahuan anda tentang urusan perkopian ini. BTW, maaf, ”pencerahan” nya masih memakai bahasa asli dari makalahnya, yaitu bahasa inggris. Abis, males bener deh hari gini menterjemahkannya makalah. Emang nya gak ada kerjaan lain ye???

Sebelumnya, terima kasih banyak saya ucapkan kepada Mbak Syenny yang telah memberikan izin bagi saya untuk menyebarluaskan makalah beliau, baik melalui blog pribadi saya maupun beberapa milis yang ada.

Silahkan menikmati!!!
From Beans to Cup

(Taken from a presentation by Syenny C Widjaja – owner of Bakoel Koffie)


1699: Arabica Coffee was first planted by the Dutch in Indonesia (Batavia: Bidara Cina, Jatinegara, Palmerah, and Kampung Melayu)

1707: VOC established coffee plantation in Priangan and Cirebon (Central Java)

1711: First Arabica beans from Java was exported to Amsterdam

1750: First Arabica seed was planted in Sulawesi (Tana Toraja)

1800: VOC required farmers to plant coffee and sold at predetermined price (verplichte Levering Stelsel)

1833: Spread to Bengkulu

1841: Spread to West Sumatra

1870: Giving the right to private plantation to use the land for 75 years, Undang-Undang Agraria (Agrarische Wet). Coffee plantation flourished in East Java.

1880: Spread to Aceh, North Sumatera – Tapaktuan, Takengon, Danau Laut Tawar

1880-1884: Indonesia coffee reached the highest production level at 95,000 tones / year

1876: Leaf Rust Disease killing all Arabica Coffee plants except those at and above 1000 meter elevation from sea level

1878: The first local roaster established “Tek Sun Ho” coffee store in West Jakarta. Kopi Luwak was one of its specialty coffee offered to its customers up till 1950’s.

1900: First Robusta Coffee was planted in Indonesia (seed from Congo, Africa)

1927: Go Soe Loet’s coffee plantation in West Java. Later it expanded to produce coffee brand “Kapal Api” local market leader.

1930: “Aroma” coffee store was established in Bandung

1935: “Kopi Bali” established in Bali

1991: Go Soe Loet opened “Excelso” cafĂ© and launched coffee brand “Excelso”

2001: The fourth generation of Tek Sun Ho revitalizing the heritage of coffee making under the name of “Bakoel Koffie”.

(Source: BPS)

Planted area:
1. Large estate: 63 kHa
2. Small holder: 1055 kHa


1. Large estate: 30 k tones
2. Small holder: 466 k tones


1. Export: 346 k tones = 71%
2. Domestic: 144 tones = 29%


1. Coffee production is dominated by small holder plantations
2. Coffee in Indonesia is an export commodity
3. With 210 million population, Indonesia has 0.7kg/person/year coffee consumption


Indonesia rank number four as coffee producing country from 1999 to 2002 after Brazil, Vietnam and Colombia; and before Mexico. (Source: www.commodities-now.com)

Harvesting period in different part of the region in Indonesia:

1. Java: from June to October
2. Sulawesi: from May to November
3. Timor: from June to September


1. From large estate to export
2. From coffee farmers to coffee traders to export or to local roasters. Local roasters are divided into: specialty coffee (Bakoel Koffie – Jakarta, Aroma – Bandung, Excelso – National, Brotoseno – Kediri, and Eva – Central Java); and mass markets (Kapal Api, Ayam Merak, Bali Dancer, Singa – Surabaya, Kopi Luwak – Semarang, Kopi Tugu – Semarang, Naga Sanghie – Medan, and Kupu-kupu – Bali).


1. Most coffee farmers never taste their own beans
2. Specialty coffee market is underdeveloped

1. Coffee is an agricultural product, thus circumstances at individual farms and within origin region change every crop year, producing different result from one harvest to the next
2. Roaster needs to adjust and readjust to maintain consistency of taste
3. Thus, green bean buying is based on tasting and cupping, rather than from a specific estate….


Factors influencing great cup of coffee:

1. Green beans
2. Roast degree
3. Freshness


1. Using a small spoon, slurp the coffee loudly to aerate the coffee (releasing more aroma)
2. Taste each coffee twice, at higher temperature (for the body and viscosity) and at lower temperature (for aroma, acidity and flavor)



1. Region: Central Java, East Java
2. Process: Wet
3. Aroma/Taste: Spicy, nutty, mocha, bitter sweet
4. Body: Full body
5. Acidity: Moderate


1. Region: Mandheling, Sidikalang, Gayo
2. Process: Dry
3. Aroma/Taste: Woodsy, earthy, smooth, chocolaty
4. Body: Full body
5. Acidity: Moderate


1. Region: Toraja
2. Process: Dry
3. Aroma/Taste: Caramel, buttery, syrupy, sweet
4. Body: Full body
5. Acidity: Moderate


Method: Rotating drum

Period: 8 – 15 minutes

Bean transformation:

1. Change in color (darker)
2. Loss in weight between 15% to 20% (water evaporation)
3. Increase in volume between 30% to 60% (CO2 formation)
4. Loss in humidity


1. 50 deg C: Changes in inner tissue
2. 60 – 70 deg C: Evaporation begins
3. 100 deg C: Changes in color begin
4. 150 – 180 deg C: “Light roast” stage begins
5. 200 – 230 deg C: Optimal roasting

Control roasting:

1. Temperature in the roaster
2. Color of roasted beans


Single origin: 80% The beans come from one particular region

Blending: 20% A combination of coffees, blended together based on their complementary character to produce an end result that is smooth and unified. Minimizing some characteristic and highlight others to create a unique overall balance:

1. Pre-roasting: Blending prior to roasting, suitable only when the coffees to be blended are compatible in density and behavior during roasting
2. Post-roasting: Blending after roasting. It is more labor intensive and time consuming, thus more expensive. However, it is essential to good blending, especially when coffees behavior in the roaster is radically different (i.e. Delicate, tricky to roast dry processed)

Some roasters do blending in order to produce low cost coffee beans.


1. Freshness: Start with freshly roasted coffee beans, freshly ground
2. Grind: Use the right grind of coffee for your coffeemaker
3. Proportion: Use the right proportion of coffee to water
4. Water: Use fresh, cold water, just off the boil